Cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) in some form are provided on most state and local government pensions. The purpose of a COLA is to offset, or reduce, the effects of inflation on retirement income. Considerable variation exists in the way COLAs are designed, and in many cases they are determined or affected by other factors. COLAs add both value and cost to a pension benefit. COLAs are receiving increased attention as many states look to make adjustments to the cost of benefits amid challenging fiscal conditions and the current low-inflationary environment. This brief presents a discussion about the purpose of COLAs, the different types of COLAs offered by government retirement systems, and an overview of recent state legislative COLA actions.